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英文标点符号的使用

英文标点符号的使用

 论文指导   更新:2005-1-1 阅读:  

英文标点符号的使用


⑶ 间隔号(?):汉语有间隔号,用在月份和日期、音译的名和姓等需要隔开的词语的正
中间,如"一二?九"、"奥黛丽?赫本(人名)"等。英语中没有汉语的间隔号,需要间隔时
多用逗点。

⑷ 着重号:有时汉语用在文字下点实心圆点表示需要强调的词语,这些实心点就是着重号
。而英语中没有这一符号,需强调某些成分时可借助文字斜体、某些强调性词汇、特殊句
型、标点停顿等多种方法。

英语中的某些标点符号为汉语所没有。
⑴ 撇号--Apostrophe(‘)
⑵ 连字号--Hyphen(-)
⑶ 斜线号—Virgule or Slash(/):该符号主要起分割作用,如It could be for
staff and / or students. 也常用于标音,如bed /bed/。

⒊ 某些符号在汉英两种语言中的形式不同。
⑴ 中文的句号是空心圈(。)
英文的句号是实心点(.)。

英文的省略号是三个点(...),位置在行底;
中文的为六个点(......),居于行中。

英文的破折号是(-)
中文的是(--)

中国学生常见标点符号错误例析
(1) 顿号、书名号、句号、省略号错误。比较中英文标点符号可见,英文标点中没有中文形
式的顿号、书名号、句号和省略号。而这四种标点符号成了大学英语写作中“借鉴频率较
高的符号。如:
〔错误〕1. While she is reading《Gone With the Wind》, I am cooking。
〔错误〕2. My sister bought a lot of fruits for me , such as banana 、orange 、
apple and pear.
英文中的印刷体用斜体字表示书籍、报刊、戏剧、电影、绘画作品等的名称,在书写体或打
字机打的文本中用字下线表示斜体字;英文常用逗号来代替冒号;而句号是用实心小黑点表
示。故以上两句应改为:
〔修改〕1. While she is reading Gone With the Wind , I am cooking. (印刷体)
或While she is reading Gone With the Wind , I am cooking. (书写体)
〔修改〕2. My sister bought a lot of fruits for me , such as banana , orange
, apple and pear.
还有,英文中的省略号其实是三个句号的并列,许多学生由于受中文影响常错误地把英文
略号写成六点。


(2) 冒号错误。冒号是中英文兼有的标点符号。在汉语中,冒号是表示提示性话语之后的停
顿,常用在“说、道、讲、问、唱、回答、喊、吼”等动词的后边,以标明下面的话是谁说
的。此用法影响下列英文句子标点:
〔错误〕3. I thought to myself :“What kind of trap is she laying ?”
〔错误〕4. He asked :“Where are you from ?”
以上两例中的冒号在英文中需用逗点表示。汉语中的冒号还可用在“如次“如下“例如“
像等引起下文的提示语后边。在英文表达中,“for example”(例如) 一类的词后常用逗点
代替冒号。
〔错误〕5. Good manners can be seen in everyday life. For example : a person
with good manners is kind and
helpful to others.
〔修改〕5. Good manners can be seen in everyday life. For example , a person
with good manners is kind and helpful to others.

(3) 破折号错误。汉语中的破折号标明行文中解释说明的部分,而英文同位语也具有同等说
明的功能,故英文写作中用破折号连接同位语成份的错误也屡见不鲜。如:
〔错误〕6. We are studying and living at the famous university — Beijing
University.
〔修改〕6. We are studying and living at the famous university , Beijing
University.

对于同位语,英语一般使用逗点而不用破折号。英文中破折号的用法远没有中文的丰富。
在大学英语写作中,与语法知识有关的标点错误主要有:
(1) 把非限制性定语从句(non -restrictive attributive clause) 理解成限制性定语从
句(restrictive attributive clause) 而忽略用逗点。如:
〔错误〕7. We were led into a nearest fabric shop that was divided into two
parts.
从句意来看,上句是一个非限制性定语从句,故应在shop 后加逗点,把that 相应改成which
即:
〔修改〕7. We were led into a nearest fabric shop , which was divided into
two parts.

(2) 不论状语从句在整个句子中处于何种位置,一概以逗点隔开。
〔错误〕8. We will go there , if it is fine tomorrow.
状语从句可置于句首或句末。置于句首时,一般要用标点隔开;而置于句末时,则无需与主句
隔开,故 以上句子应改为:
〔修改〕8. If it is fine tomorrow , we will go there. 或We will go there if
it is fine tomorrow.

(3) 在疑问句形式的陈述句后使用问号。
〔错误〕9. What fun we girls could expect , to stay in the same class ,
studying for four long years with them ?I wondered.
〔修改〕9. What fun could we girls expect , to stay in the same class ,
studying for four long years with them , I wondered.
英语疑问除可用问号来表达外,尚可用词序加以表达。故上例的疑问可用逗点表示。

(4) 误把however ,therefore , because , thus 等起联系作用的副词当成并列连词,导致
写作中的逗号粘连(comma splice) 错误。
〔错误〕10. She thought what the teacher pointed out was right , however ,
she didn’t care for that .
两个完整的句子或两个并列句之间不能一概用逗点点开, 可用句号、分号或在逗点后加并
列连词(and , but , or , for , so , nor , yet) 等方法修改。故上例可改为:
〔修改〕10. She thought what the teacher pointed out was right . However ,
she didn’t care for that .
或She thought what the teacher pointed out was right ; however , she didn’t
care for that .
或She thought what the teacher pointed out was right , but she didn’t care
for that .

(5) 与comma splice 相映成趣的是,许多学生作文时,极少考虑句子间的逻辑关系,一个逗
点连首尾,导致大量熔句(fused sentence) 的堆砌。例如:
〔错误〕11. Young men like blue jeans they wear them all the time.
〔修改〕11. Young men like blue jeans ; they wear them all the time.
或Young men like blue jeans. They wear them all the time.
或Young men like blue jeans , and they wear them all the time.
或Young men like blue jeans ; they wear them all the time.
或Since young men like blue jeans , they wear them all the time.

(6) 两个并列的形容词间以and 代替逗点。
〔错误〕12. Through the window , in front of me were large green fields which
reminded me of the small clearing where I spent my lonely and hard childhood.
现代英语表达一般在两个形容词中间不使用and , 而是用逗点分隔。
〔修改〕12. Through the window , in front of me were large green fields which
reminded me of the small clearing where I spent my lonely , hard childhood

因语体错位而造成的标点错误。英文写作是一种书面语的输出。其书面语体的特征要求其
与口头语相区别。口语中存在的大量缩约(contraction) 在书面语体中应尽量避免。而许
学生在书面作文中大量使用省字号(’),几乎1/ 3 左右的作文在文体上存在漏洞,现代英
语的发展对此却难以容忍。如:
1. I’d like to share my joys with you. ( I would like to)
2. .you can’t behave like that . (you cannot)
3. .there’re so many splendid toys for me to select . (there are)

其他错误:
(1) 引号错误。
〔错误〕13.“No pain , no gain. ”If you .
〔修改〕13. As the saying goes ,“No pain , no gain. ”
英文中短小的引语与作者提示“某某说之类的词语之间用逗点隔开,置于引号内。不能省略
提示语“某某说之类而直接引用。
〔错误〕14. Glancing through the essay entitled“Why Not More ? ”, Dr.
Jefferson frowned thoughtfully.
〔修改〕14. Glancing through the essay entitled“Why Not More ?,”Dr.
Jefferson frowned thoughtfully.
许多学生对诸如上例引号边的标点位置含糊,不清楚以下常用法:句号和逗号必须置于引号
之内;冒号和分号必须置于引号之外;如果所引内容本身是疑问句或感叹句,问号和感叹号一
般放在引号之内,否则,问号和感叹号则放在引号之外。

(2) 日-月-年次序的日期中的逗号错误。英语日期的表达可以用月-日-年的次序和日-月-

的次序,日和年之间加逗号而月和年之间习惯上不加逗号。例如: 误把“13 August 2002”
写成“13 August , 2002”。

(3) 在部分副词如perhaps , so 后加逗号。如:
〔错误〕16. Perhaps , I would not have such a good chance again.
〔错误〕17. So , they keep in touch with each other merely by writing letters
and phoning now.
以上两句的修改方法是把句中的逗号去掉。

(4) 连接号(hyphen) 错误。许多英语习作者往往随意用连接号派生单词,如把“boyfriend
”写成“boy -friend”;“middle school”写成“middle -school”。在行末单词分行时
,连接号使用错误更多。与之相反,若把本应有的连接号粗心删去,其单词含义可能会大相径
庭。如有一年美国政府在一份贸易清单上列举了一些免税进口的物品,其中有一种是foreig
n fruit —plants(外国果树苗),后来由于打字员的疏忽,漏打连接号使其成了foreign
fruit , plants(外国水果、树苗),结果导致第二年大量的水果如桔子、葡萄等从世界各地
免税涌入美国市场从而使美国政府当年损失约200 多万美元。

应用逗号而没用,造成语义的表达不清。
Please send me a gross each of the red , green ,blue ,orange and black ties.
使人看了以后不知是发5 摞(1 摞= 12 打)
—红、绿、蓝、橙、黑各一摞— 领带,还是发4 摞
—红、绿、蓝、橙黑各一摞领带。这句话可改为:
①Please send me a gross each of the red , green ,blue ,orange ,and black
ties.
②Please send me a gross each of the red , green ,blue ,orange-and-black
ties.

该用分号的地方用了逗点, 不该用标点的地方也用了逗点,都导致了句子的错误。
①People make history , unusual people make history interesting. 此句逗点应改为
分号, 这是两个独立分句。
②Mary was happiest when she was free of her parents’ scrutiny , or while
she was working in her garden. 此句的并列连词是连接的成对的从句,而不是独立分句,
连词前面的逗号应去掉。
标点符号的使用是约定俗成的, 初学写作的人只有牢记它的使用规则, 才能写出规范的文
章来。

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